Chemical & petrochemical plants convert oil, natural gas, air, water, metals and minerals into chemical products. Chemicals that are derived from petroleum or natural gas are called petrochemicals. These chemicals are typically extracted during the refining process as crude oil and natural gas liquids, and they are cracked or distilled.
Primary petrochemicals are divided into three groups:
- Olefins include ethylene, propylene, and butadiene. Ethylene and propylene are important sources of industrial chemicals and plastics products. Butadiene is used in making synthetic rubber.
- Aromatics include benzene, toluene, and xylenes. Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents, and benzene and toluene for isocyanates MDI and TDI used in making polyurethanes. Manufacturers use xylenes to produce plastics and synthetic fibers.
- Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen used to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to make the fertilizer urea and methanol is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
Oil refineries produce olefins and aromatics by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions.
Chemical plants produce olefins by steam cracking of natural gas liquids like ethane and propane. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming o naphtha.
The major hydrocarbon sources used in producing petrochemicals are:
- Methane, ethane, propane and butanes: Obtained primarily from natural gas processing plants.
- Naphtha obtained from petroleum refineries.
- Benzene, toluene and xylenes, as a whole referred to as BTX and primarily obtained from petroleum refineries by extraction from the reformate produced in catalytic reformers.
- Gas obtained from petroleum refineries.
AMPO POYAM VALVES has being involved since 1964 in the design and production of highly engineered solutions for the chemical processes, supplying the most critical and tough application demanded valves on this sector and specialized on the manufacturing of BALL, PLUG, BUTTERFLY, ANGLE, GATE, GLOBE and CHECK valves.